SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies followed by the Company in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements is as follows:
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Reverse Stock Split
On February 14, 2023, the Company completed a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of its outstanding common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The Reverse Stock Split did not change the number of authorized shares of common stock or par value. All references in these condensed consolidated financial statements to shares, share prices, exercise prices, and other per share information in all periods have been adjusted, on a retroactive basis, to reflect the Reverse Stock Split (see Note 12).
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The process of preparing financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and changes in estimates may occur. The most significant estimates are related to stock-based compensation expense (see Note 13), the accrual of research, product development and clinical obligations (see Note 10), and the valuation of warrants (see Note 9 and Note 14).
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers only those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash, and that mature within 90 days from date of purchase to be cash equivalents. At September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, cash equivalents were comprised of money market funds, commercial paper, and other debt securities with maturities less than three months from the date of purchase.
Restricted cash as of September 30, 2023 included security for a stand-by letter of credit issued in favor of a landlord for $669,900 of which $192,475 was classified in current assets and $477,425 was classified in noncurrent assets as of September 30, 2023.
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash consist of the following:
As of September 30, 2023, all of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents was held in the United States ("U.S."), except for approximately $1,347,000 of cash which was held in its subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Australia. As of December 31, 2022, all of the Company’s cash was held in the U.S., except for approximately $2,805,000 of cash which was held in its subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Australia.
Investments consist of debt securities with maturities greater than 90 days at their acquisition date. The Company has classified its investments with maturities beyond one year as current, based on their highly liquid nature and because such investments represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations.
The Company classifies all of its marketable debt securities as available-for-sale securities. The Company’s marketable debt securities are measured and reported at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for similar securities. Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt securities that are not related to credit losses are reported as accumulated other comprehensive gain or loss, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity. The cost of debt securities sold is determined on a specific identification basis, and realized gains and losses are included in other income (expense), net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company evaluates its marketable debt securities with unrealized losses for impairment. When assessing marketable debt securities for potential impairment, the Company considers available evidence, including the extent to which fair value is less than cost, whether an allowance for credit loss is required, and adverse factors that could affect the value of the securities. An impairment has occurred if the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the marketable debt security. If the Company does not intend to sell the impaired debt security and it is not more likely than not required to sell the debt security before the recovery of its amortized cost basis, the amount of the impairment related to credit losses is recognized in an allowance for credit losses with an offsetting entry to Other income (expense), net. The remaining portion of the impairment related to other factors is recognized in Other comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses for debt securities are included in Other income (expense), net. No such adjustments were necessary during the periods presented.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements. The Company may, from time to time, have cash in its U.S. banks in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance limits and in its foreign banks in excess of their local insurance limits. However, the Company believes the risk of loss is minimal as these banks are large financial institutions.
The carrying values of the notes payable and debt approximate their fair value due to the fact that they are at market terms.
Fair Value Measurements
The valuation of the Company’s debt and embedded derivatives are determined primarily by an income approach that considers the present value of net cash flows of the debt with and without prepayment and default features. These embedded debt features, which are determined to be classified as derivative liabilities are marked-to-market each reporting period, with a corresponding non-cash gain or loss charged to the current period. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, there exists a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access as of the measurement date.
Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are directly observable for the asset or liability or indirectly observable through corroboration with observable market data.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability only used when there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.
The Company’s investments, debt, and its derivative liabilities are carried at fair value determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above. The carrying values of the Company’s prepaid expenses and other current assets and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.
To determine the fair value of our embedded derivatives, management evaluates assumptions regarding the probability of certain future events. Other factors used to determine fair value include the discount rate, risk-free interest rate and derivative term. The fair value recorded for the derivative liability varies from period to period. This variability may result in the actual derivative liability for a period either above or below the estimates recorded on our condensed consolidated financial statements, resulting in fluctuations in other income (expense) because of the corresponding non-cash gain or loss recorded.
Property and Equipment
The estimated life for the Company’s property and equipment is as follows: three years for computer hardware and software and to five years for office furniture and equipment. The Company’s leasehold improvements and assets under capital lease are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the respective leases. See Note 7 for details of property and equipment and Note 8 for operating and capital lease commitments.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and operating lease liabilities current and noncurrent in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. This is the rate the Company would have to pay if borrowing on a collateralized basis over a similar term to each lease. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company has subleased a portion of its leased facility under an agreement considered to be an operating lease according to U.S. GAAP. The Company has not been legally released from its primary obligations under the original lease and therefore it continues to account for the original lease as it did before commencement of the sublease. The Company will record both fixed and variable payments received from the sublessee in its statement of operations on a straight-line basis as an offset to rent expense.
Accruals for Research and Development Expenses and Clinical Trials
As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants, and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment terms that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are performed and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the expenses. The Company determines accrual estimates by taking into account discussions with applicable internal personnel and outside service providers as to the progress of clinical trials, or the services completed. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations (“CROs”) and other third-party vendors. Although the Company does not expect its estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, its understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in it reporting amounts that are too high or too low for any particular period. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, there were no material adjustments to the Company’s prior period estimates of accrued expenses for clinical trials.
We recognize revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), which applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements, and financial instruments. Under ASC 606, we recognize revenue when our customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that we determine are within the scope of ASC 606, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, we assess the goods or services promised within each contract and determine those that are performance obligations and assess whether each promised good or service is distinct. We then recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
Research and Development Expenses
Costs incurred for research and development are expensed as incurred.
Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services that have the characteristics that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities pursuant to executory contractual arrangements with third party research organizations are deferred and recognized as an expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed.
We account for asset acquisitions under the accounting standards for business combinations and research and development, as applicable. In-process research and development acquired in an asset acquisition is expensed immediately unless there is an alternative future use. Subsequent payments made for the achievement of milestones are evaluated to determine whether they have an alternative future use or should be expensed.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions regarding resource allocation and assessing performance. To date, the Company has viewed its operations and manages its business as principally one operating segment, which is developing and commercializing therapeutics for cancer. As of September 30, 2023, all of the Company’s assets were located in the U.S., except for approximately $1,347,000 of cash and cash equivalents and $1,192,000 of prepaid expenses and other assets which were held outside of the U.S., principally in its subsidiary in the United Kingdom. As of December 31, 2022, all of the Company’s assets were located in the U.S., except for approximately $2,805,000 of cash and cash equivalents and $136,000 of prepaid expenses and other assets which were held outside of the U.S., principally in its subsidiary in the United Kingdom.
For federal and state income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based upon temporary differences between the financial statement and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred income taxes are based upon prescribed rates and enacted laws applicable to periods in which differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce a net deferred tax benefit when it is not more likely than not that the tax benefit from the deferred tax assets will be realized. Accordingly, given the cumulative losses since inception, the Company has provided a valuation allowance equal to 100% of the deferred tax assets in order to eliminate the deferred tax assets amounts.
Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns are required to be evaluated to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained by the applicable tax authority. Tax positions not deemed to meet a more-likely-than-not threshold, as well as accrued interest and penalties, if any, would be recorded as a tax expense in the current year. There were no uncertain tax positions that require accrual or disclosure to the financial statements as of September 30, 2023 or December 31, 2022.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that carrying amounts of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when expected undiscounted cash flows of an asset are less than an asset’s carrying value. Accordingly, when indicators of impairment are present, the Company evaluates the carrying value of such assets in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying assets. An impairment loss equal to the excess of the fair value of the asset over its carrying amount is recorded when it is determined that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. The Company notes no impairment charges were taken in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards, including stock options and restricted stock units (“RSUs”), to employees, non-employees, and directors as an expense in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss over the service period based on a measurement of fair value for each stock-based award. The fair value of each stock option grant is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of restricted stock units is the quoted closing market price per share on the grant date. Forfeitures are estimated on the grant date based on historical experience and management’s expectations of future forfeitures. To the extent actual forfeitures differ from the estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period in which the estimates are revised. The fair value of each grant is amortized as compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting period.
Transaction gains and losses arising from currency exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar functional currency are recorded in Other income (expense), net in the Company’s statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Such transaction gains and losses may be realized or unrealized depending upon whether the transaction settled during the period or remains outstanding at the balance sheet date. The functional currency of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is the U.S. Dollar.
Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share of the Company’s common stock has been computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. For periods in which there is a net loss, options and warrants are anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from diluted loss per share calculations. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022:
Stock options and warrants that have not been exercised and unvested restricted stock units (see Notes 13 and 14) have been excluded from the diluted calculation as all periods presented have a net loss and the impact of these securities would be anti-dilutive.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss model. It also eliminates the concept of other-than-temporary impairment and requires credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. These changes may result in earlier recognition of credit losses. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, which narrowed the scope and changed the effective date for non-public entities for ASU 2016-13. The FASB subsequently issued supplemental guidance within ASU No. 2019-05, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief (“ASU 2019-05”). ASU 2019-05 provides an option to irrevocably elect the fair value option for certain financial assets previously measured at amortized cost basis. The Company's adoption of ASU 2016-13 as of January 1, 2023 had no impact on the Company's financial statements as there are no assets held at amortized cost on the balance sheet, and there are no credit losses associated with our available-for-sale debt securities.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity which is intended to simplify various aspects of U.S. GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. The Company's early adoption of ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2023 had no impact on the Company's financial statements and disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. Management determined that recently issued ASUs are not expected to have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.