Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
A summary of the significant accounting policies followed by the Company in the preparation of the financial statements is as follows:
Use of Estimates
The process of preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of assets and liabilities at the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and changes in estimates may occur. The most significant estimates are related to stock based compensation, the value of derivative instruments and the accrual of research and clinical obligations.
Prior to the registration of its common stock and the subsequent public listing of the common stock, the Company had granted stock options at exercise prices not less than the fair value of its common stock as determined by the board of directors, with input from management. The Company’s board of directors determined the estimated fair value of the common stock based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector and the historic prices at which the Company sold shares of preferred stock.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers only those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash, and that mature within three months from date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Marketable investments are those with original maturities in excess of three months. At June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, cash equivalents were comprised of money market funds. The Company had no marketable investments at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014. Cash and cash equivalents consist of the following:
As of June 30, 2015, the Company had restricted cash of $13,730 due to a stand-by letter of credit in favor of a landlord (see Note 5).
The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheet for cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable approximate fair value based on the short-term nature of these instruments. The carrying value of loans payable approximate their fair value due to the market terms.
Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment consists of the following:
The estimated life for all property and equipment is three years.
Research and Development Expenses and Collaborative Research Agreements
Costs incurred for research and development are expensed as incurred. For research grants prior to 2015, the Company had recorded payments received from research and development grants and awards as a reduction in research and development on the Statement of Operations. For the development award received from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (note 12) the Company is recognizing revenue under a collaborative research agreement. The research grants prior to 2015 were immaterial, therefore they were not re-classified to revenue.
On April 20, 2015, the Company entered into an award agreement with Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics, Inc. (“CFFT”) (see Note 13). The Company is recognizing revenue from the award agreement under a collaborative research agreement. Pursuant to the terms of this agreement, the Company received a payment of $1,250,000 upon signing the agreement and is entitled to potential milestone payments totaling $3,750,000 dependent upon the achievement of certain milestones. For this agreement and future collaborative research agreements revenue is recognized only when the price is fixed or determinable, persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or the services have been rendered, collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured, and the Company has fulfilled its performance obligations under the contract. The Company is amortizing the $1,250,000 payment and future milestone payments on a straight-line basis over the expected duration of the performance period of the development program under the award which is expected to conclude in March 2017.
Accruals for Research and Development Expenses and Clinical Trials
As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate trial expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are performed and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the trial. The Company determines accrual estimates through financial models taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of consummation of trials, or the services completed. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors. Although the Company does not expect its estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, its understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in it reporting amounts that are too high or too low for any particular period. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, there were no material adjustments to the Company’s prior period estimates of accrued expenses for clinical trials.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements. The Company may from time to time have cash in banks in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance limits.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in making decisions regarding resource allocation and assessing performance. To date, the Company has viewed its operations and manages its business as principally one operating segment, which is developing and commercializing therapeutics to treat rare life-threating, rare inflammatory fibrotic diseases. As of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, all of the Company’s assets were located in the United States.
For federal and state income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based upon temporary differences between the financial statement and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred income taxes are based upon prescribed rates and enacted laws applicable to periods in which differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce a net deferred tax benefit when it is more likely than not that the tax benefit from the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Accordingly, the Company has provided a valuation allowance equal to 100% of the tax benefit in order to eliminate the deferred tax assets amounts. Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns are required to be evaluated to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained by the applicable tax authority.
Tax positions not deemed to meet a more-likely-than-not threshold would be recorded as a tax expense in the current year. There were no uncertain tax positions that require accrual or disclosure to the financial statements as of June 30, 2015 or December 31, 2014.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that carrying amounts of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when expected cash flows are less than an asset’s carrying value. Accordingly, when indicators of impairment are present, the Company evaluates the carrying value of such assets in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying assets. The Company’s policy is to record an impairment loss when it is determined that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. No impairment charges were recorded for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to employees, non-employees and directors as an expense in the statement of operations over the service period based on a measurement of fair value for each stock-based award. The fair value of each option grant is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model for employees and non-employees. The fair value is amortized as compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting period. The Company accounts for stock options granted to non-employees on a fair value basis which is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The initial non-cash charge to operations for non-employee options is revalued at the end of each reporting period until vested and recognized as expense over the related vesting period.
The Company generally does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash-flow or market risks; however, certain warrants to purchase common stock that do not meet the requirements for classification as equity are classified as liabilities. In such instances, net-cash settlement is assumed for financial reporting purposes, even when the terms of the underlying contracts do not provide for a net-cash settlement. Such financial instruments are initially recorded at fair value with subsequent changes in fair value charged (credited) to operations in each reporting period. If these instruments subsequently meet the requirements for classification as equity, the Company reclassifies the fair value to equity.
Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic net loss per share of the Company’s common stock has been computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share of the Company’s common stock has been computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares outstanding plus the dilutive effect, if any, of outstanding stock options, warrants and convertible securities. In a net loss period, options, warrants and convertible securities are anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from diluted loss per share calculations. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014:
The following potentially dilutive securities outstanding at June 30, 2015 and 2014 have been excluded from the computation of dilutive weighted average shares outstanding as the inclusion would be antidilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern, which states management should evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise a substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. Management’s evaluation should be based on relevant conditions and events that are known and likely to occur at the date that the financial statements are issued. The standard update will be effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter, however, early application is permitted. Management does not expect the adoption of ASU 2014-15 to have material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements, although there may be additional disclosures upon adoption.
In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update 2015-03, Interest Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs (“ASU 2015-03”) which requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. This ASU requires retrospective adoption and will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef