SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies followed by the Company in the preparation of the financial statements is as follows:
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The process of preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and changes in estimates may occur. The most significant estimates are related to stock-based compensation expense, the accrual of research, product development and clinical obligations, the recognition of revenue under the Investment Agreement (See Note 11), the valuation of warrants discussed in Note 15 and Note 9, and the derivative liability associated with the K2 Security and Loan agreement (see Note 16).
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers only those investments which are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash, and that mature within three months from date of purchase to be cash equivalents. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, cash equivalents were comprised of money market funds.
Restricted cash as of December 31, 2021 included security for a stand-by letter of credit issued in favor of a landlord for $669,900 of which $192,475 was classified in current assets and $477,425 was classified in noncurrent assets as of December 31, 2021.
Cash and cash equivalents consists of the following:
As of December 31, 2021, all of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents was held in the United States, except for approximately $5,752,000 of cash which was held principally in our subsidiary in the United Kingdom. As of December 31, 2020, all of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents was held in the United States, except for approximately $1,033,000 of cash which was held principally in our subsidiary in the United Kingdom.
Investments consist of investments in debt securities and term deposits with maturities greater than 90 days at their acquisition date. The Company has classified its investments with maturities beyond one year as current, based on their highly liquid nature and because such investments represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations.
The Company classifies all of its marketable debt securities as available-for-sale securities. The Company’s marketable debt securities are measured and reported at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for similar securities. Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt securities are reported as accumulated other comprehensive gain or loss, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity. The cost of debt securities sold is determined on a specific identification basis, and realized gains and losses are included in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company evaluates its marketable debt securities with unrealized losses for other-than-temporary impairment. When assessing marketable debt securities for other-than-temporary declines in value, the Company considers such factors as, among other things, how significant the decline in value is as a percentage of the original cost, how long the market value of the investment has been less than its original cost, the Company’s ability and intent to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value and market conditions in general. If any adjustment to fair value reflects a decline in the value of the investment that the Company considers to be “other than temporary,” the Company reduces the investment to fair value through a charge to the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. No such adjustments were necessary during the periods presented.
The carrying values of the notes payable and debt approximate their fair value due to the fact that they are at market terms.
Fair Value Measurements
The valuation of the Company’s debt and embedded derivatives are determined primarily by an income approach that considers the present value of net cash flows of the debt with and without prepayment and default features. These embedded debt features, which are determined to be classified as derivative liabilities are marked-to-market each reporting period, with a corresponding non-cash gain or loss charged to the current period. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, there exists a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access as of the measurement date
Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are directly observable for the asset or liability or indirectly observable through corroboration with observable market data
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability only used when there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date
The Company’s investments, debt, and its derivative liabilities are carried at fair value determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above. The carrying values of the Company’s prepaid expenses and other current assets, and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.
To determine the fair value of our embedded derivatives, management evaluates assumptions regarding the probability of certain future events. Other factors used to determine fair value include the discount rate, risk free interest rate and derivative term. The fair value recorded for the derivative liability varies from period to period. This variability may result in the actual derivative liability for a period either above or below the estimates recorded on our consolidated financial statements, resulting in fluctuations in other income (expense) because of the corresponding non-cash gain or loss recorded.
Property and Equipment
The estimated life for the Company’s property and equipment is as follows: three years for computer hardware and software and to five years for office furniture and equipment. The Company’s leasehold improvements and assets under capital lease are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the respective leases. See Note 7 for details of property and equipment and Note 8 for operating and capital lease commitments.
Research and Development Expenses
Costs incurred for research and development are expensed as incurred.
Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services that have the characteristics that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities pursuant to executory contractual arrangements with third party research organizations are deferred and recognized as an expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed.
Accruals for Research and Development Expenses and Clinical Trials
As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment terms that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are performed and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the expenses. The Company determines the accrual estimates by taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress of clinical trials, or the services completed. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors. Although the Company does not expect its estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, its understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in it reporting amounts that are too high or too low for any particular period. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, there were no material adjustments to the Company’s prior period estimates of accrued expenses for clinical trials.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, other current liabilities and operating lease liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. This is the rate the Company would have to pay if borrowing on a collateralized basis over a similar term to each lease. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company has subleased a portion of its leased facility under an agreement considered to be an operating lease according to GAAP. The Company has not been legally released from its primary obligations under the original lease and therefore it continues to account for the original lease as it did before commencement of the sublease. The Company will record both fixed and variable payments received from the sublessee in its statement of operations on a straight-line basis as an offset to rent expense.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements. The Company may from time to time have cash in banks in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance limits. However, the Company believes the risk of loss is minimal as these banks are large financial institutions.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions regarding resource allocation and assessing performance. To date, the Company has viewed its operations and manages its business as principally one operating segment, which is developing and commercializing therapeutics for autoimmunity, fibrosis, and cancer. As of December 31, 2021, all of the Company’s assets were located in the United States, except for approximately $22,504,000 of cash, cash equivalents, and investments, $973,000 of prepaid expenses and other assets, and $1,000 of property and equipment, net which were held outside of the United States, principally in our subsidiary in the United Kingdom. As of December 31, 2020, all of the Company’s assets were located in the United States, except for approximately $1,033,000 of cash, $1,837,000 of prepaid expenses and other assets, and $23,000 of property and equipment, net which were held outside of the United States, principally in our subsidiary in the United Kingdom.
For federal and state income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based upon temporary differences between the financial statement and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred income taxes are based upon prescribed rates and enacted laws applicable to periods in which differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce a net deferred tax benefit when it is not more likely than not that the tax benefit from the deferred tax assets will be realized. Accordingly, given the cumulative losses since inception, the Company has provided a valuation allowance equal to 100% of the deferred tax assets in order to eliminate the deferred tax assets amounts.
Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns are required to be evaluated to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained by the applicable tax authority. Tax positions not deemed to meet a more-likely-than-not threshold, as well as accrued interest and penalties, if any, would be recorded as a tax expense in the current year. There were no uncertain tax positions that require accrual or disclosure to the financial statements as of December 31, 2021 or 2020.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that carrying amounts of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when expected undiscounted cash flows of an asset are less than an asset’s carrying value. Accordingly, when indicators of impairment are present, the Company evaluates the carrying value of such assets in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying assets. An impairment loss equal to the excess of the fair value of the asset over its carrying amount, is recorded when it is determined that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. The Company recognized an impairment loss of approximately $606,000 in the third quarter of 2021 to write down the value of leasehold improvements as a result of entering into a sublease. The Company notes no other impairment charges were taken in 2021. See Note 8 for more details on sublease agreement.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to employees, non-employees and directors as an expense in the statement of operations over the service period based on a measurement of fair value for each stock-based award. The fair value of each option grant is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, net of estimated forfeitures. The fair value is amortized as compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting period.
Transaction gains and losses arising from currency exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar functional currency are recorded in the Company’s statement of operations. Such transaction gains and losses may be realized or unrealized depending upon whether the transaction settled during the period or remains outstanding at the balance sheet date. The functional currency of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar.
Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share of the Company’s common stock has been computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. For years in which there is a net loss, options and warrants are anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from diluted loss per share calculations. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
* Warrants and options that have not been exercised have been excluded from the diluted calculation as all periods presented have a net loss and the impact of these securities would be anti-dilutive.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company’s adoption of ASU 2019-12 as of January 1, 2021 had no impact on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2021, the FSB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt—Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging— Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options which is intended to clarify and reduce diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options that remain equity classified after modification of exchange. This standard is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The standard will be adopted upon the effective date for us beginning January 1, 2022. The Company's adoption of ASU 2021-04 as of January 1, 2022 will not have a material impact on the Company's financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity which is intended to simplify various aspects of GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. The standard is effective for public companies that meet the definition of an SEC filer, excluding entities that are smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC, for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2021. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the timing of the adoption of ASU 2020-06 and the potential impact that this standard may have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss model. It also eliminates the concept of other-than-temporary impairment and requires credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. These changes may result in earlier recognition of credit losses. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, which narrowed the scope and changed the effective date for non-public entities for ASU 2016-13. The FASB subsequently issued supplemental guidance within ASU No. 2019-05, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief (“ASU 2019-05”). ASU 2019-05 provides an option to irrevocably elect the fair value option for certain financial assets previously measured at amortized cost basis. For public entities that are SEC filers, excluding entities that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies, ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. This standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2023 or when it ceases being eligible to be a smaller reporting company. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that this standard may have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef